An A to Z list of horse breeds

Equine Alphabet Soup – Western Horseman

An A to Z listing of horse breeds from the April 1963 subject of Western Horseman.

What number of breeds of horses and ponies are you able to title? In case you have common curiosity in horses you’ll be able to title the Quarter Horse, Arabian, Thoroughbred, Appaloosa, Palomino, Standardbred, American Saddle Horse, Tennessee Walker, and Morgan, and you may most likely title a number of ponies, similar to Shetland, Welsh, Icelandic, and Pony of the Americas. Are you having a tough time pondering up any extra?

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | Okay | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z



Are you positive you havent heard of the Akhal-Teke? It is among the most historical and one of the vital stunning breeds in existence. The breed is exclusive in that since time immemorial it has been tethered and hand consumed Lucerne and barley. They’re specialised saddle horses bred to exist below situations of nice warmth and privation.

Their conformation may be very elegant with stunning Persian head, a noble expressive eye, lengthy high-quality neck, and the very best toes and legs. Essentially the most desired coloration is a pale honey-gold with black factors. Do you have to wish to see one, get out the globe and discover Turkmen, U.S.S.R., and check out to determine find out how to get there.


The Albino you will have seen in circuses. He’s believed to be of Arabian-Morgan inventory. The Anglo-Norman you might not have seen. He was delivered to England by William the Conqueror and was a beautiful conflict horse. He has been carelessly crossed and has misplaced a lot of his high-quality traits.


The Anglo-Arab consists of the 2 purest breeds, the Arabian and the Thoroughbred, and possesses no alien blood. It has been a really profitable breed in competitors with most different breeds of sunshine horses. Due to the added stamina and intelligence derived by the Arabian, the Anglo-Arab has proved to be an excellent hunter and really stunning hack, having all the mandatory gaiety and airiness of motion and nice refinement. It is a superb dressage horse. The true Anglo-Arab is described as being a mixture of the Thoroughbred and the Arabian with out displaying to a marked diploma the excellent traits of both. It needs to be the Thoroughbred at its greatest with extra of the basic Arabian head, the sensible tail carriage, and the added intelligence which is predicted of and located virtually invariably within the Arabian.


How concerning the Ardennes, which varieties 60% of the horse populations of Sweden, and the Ass, the Australian or Waler, the Austrian, which regularly reveals Appaloosa sort markings, the Balearic, the Barb, and the Basuto from Africa of nice endurance and one of the vital fearless and surefooted ponies on the earth. Weren’t half by the Bs. Now come the Batak or Deli, the Bederbeck and the Beetewk, and even the Boulonnais and the Breton and the Burmese or Shan.

C – F

The Cleveland Bay and the Blydesdale, the Cob and the Connemara you most likely know however how concerning the Criollo, Dales, Danish, Dartmoor, the Don, a Russian Steppe horse descended from the Arabian and appeared upon because the saddlehorse of perfection, Dutch Draft, the Exmoor, the Fell, the Fjord, and the Friesian? Did you assume the latter was a cow? The Friesian is solely indigenous to the Netherlands. It’s a very furry horse with a mane generally reaching to the bottom.

G & H

Are you prepared for the Gs and Hs? Theres the Gelderland, Gidran and his shut relative, the Nonius, that are Hungarian breeds, the Gronengen and the Gudbrandsdal, the Hack, the Hackney Horse derived from the Darley Areabian, the Hackney Pony, the Hafflinger, the Hanoveraner, Highlands, Holstein, and the Hungarian Shagya.

I & J

Russia has the Iomud, Italy the Italian or Neopolitans. Within the Caucasus we discover the Kabarda damaged down into two sub-breeds, Karabair and Lokai, the results of crossing native Mongol inventory with sires of Persian and Arab blood. These are exceptionally agile and sure-footed animals. They are going to ford harmful rivers and cross precipitous ranges with nice braveness and sagacity. Of their habitat, Uzbekistan, the nationwide recreation known as goat snatching by which on mounted man carries a goat whereas others attempt to take it from him at a full gallop. Some enjoyable!


One other horse of the Causcasus is the Karabakh, predominately Arabian in conformation. The golden coloration of the opposite Russian breed, the Akhal-Teke, along with admirable conformation makes the Karabakh breed on of probably the most stunning on the earth.


Going from the elegant to the ridiculous now we have within the Himalayas the Kathiawari and the Marwari. These are two sorts of the identical breed and could also be described as wretched little creatures, skinny, weedy, very slim, his entrance legs popping out of the identical maintain, so to talk. This breed is an ideal instance of poor or no breeding administration. They had been as soon as a really robust, elegant breed. It’s most likely {that a} Kathiawari was a teammate of Rudyard Kiplings Maltese Cat, as they had been typically very high-quality polo mounts.

Klepper and Knapstrup

Did you ever hear of the Klepper of the Baltic space or the Knabstrup of Denmark? This latter is of nice curiosity to Appaloosa fanciers. The breed is an previous Danish one, solely confined to noticed horses, and the peculiar type of the spots are categorized by the British Noticed Horse Society as leopard, snowflake, and blanket. In the course of the Napoleonic Wars, Spanish troops had been stationed in Denmark and a Spanish officer left behind his noticed mare. She turned a supply boy for a butcher however she had each pace and endurance. Destined to turn into the muse mare of a brand new breed when the proprietor of an property known as Knabstrup purchased from the butcher this chestnut mare with blanket markings with a white mane and tail. Her title was Flaeibehoppen a horrible handicap one would assume. She was mated with a Fredericksburg stallion of palomino coloration and their colt, Flaebenhingstewn, turned the muse stallion of the breed. He has related coloration the lighter shades of the unique mare although he had a peculiar metallic look and was described as having greater than 20 colours. The Knabstrup is a very fashionable breed in Denmark right this moment.


Poland has its Konick, which is a normal title for a number of native breeds of small horses. College students of genetics will discover this breed fascinating. In 1936, makes an attempt had been made by Professor Vetulani of Pznan College to breed the forest horse again to its unique wild state. The nice forest of Bialoweiza was made right into a Nationwide Park and among the many animals introduced again there have been a stallion and a mare each of which has the outstanding property, possessed by sure different animals such because the hare and the grouse, of turning white in winter, a attribute uncommon within the horse. Each winter they modified their mouse-gray summer season coats with the black dorsal stripes into white coats, solely the face, fetlocks, mane, and tail retaining the conventional darkish coloration. This mare and stallion handed this odd attribute on to a few of their progeny however not all. The breed passes alongside its nice longevity. It’s fairly widespread in Poland to see 25-year-old ponies nonetheless onerous at work.


Now you might assume the Limousin is a Rolls Royce however you’d be fallacious, for whereas the latter is pure English, the Limousin is just half-English and horse at that. He’s French and his companion horse in Normandy is the Charolais which can upset you considerably in case you that the Charolais was strictly bovine. Each of those breeds have the English Thoroughbred as their basis sire and re extremely prized as hunters.


You all know of the Lipizzaner, after all, and that it takes its title from Lipizza in Austria and has been round since 1564. The Lipizzan is derived from a cross between the Kladruber of Bohemia and a small Italian horse admixed with Arabian blood. These are the animals which had been used within the well-known Spanish Driving Faculty at Vienna. It might shake you to study that the celebrated workout routines practiced there weren’t Spanish in any respect however had been originated by an English duke and a French driving grasp.


Now come to the M, N, O, and Ps. When you assume polo is a recreation that Cecil Smith, Mike Phipps, Billy Linfoot, and Dr. Marvin Beeman thought as much as move the time of day, you might be stunned to study that the reigning king of Manipur within the seventh Century launched the sport of polo, performed on ponies bred in his state and known as Manipur ponies to this present day. Within the 18th Century they had been formidable conflict ponies and once more in 1945 carried the victorious 14th Military into Burma.

From Asia to Europe to call the German Mecklenburg, additionally a conflict horse, and again to Asia to take a look on the Mongolian Pony. That is an iron-hard little horse as a result of it must be. The nomad homeowners of those ponies don’t waste any time or cash on feeding and the Mongolian ponies lot is a tough one.


The Morgan, a pleasant acquainted title, sprang from one progenitor, a 14-hand bay stallion later named Justin Morgan. His ancestry was mainly Arabian, it’s thought.


Its time to say Americas Mustang. The derivation of the phrase is from the Spanish mestengo which means stranger, which in flip comes from the Spanish mesta, the title given to an affiliation of graziers, considered one of whose capabilities was the appropriation of untamed cattle which had hooked up themselves to tame herds. They’re Spanish in origin have been introduced from Cuba by Cortez. Occasional throw-backs to their unique distant Arabian ancestry had been identified to look, changing into legendary figures for his or her excellent dimension, magnificence, and pace.


Two extra ponies you might not have heard about are the New Forest of Britain and the Norwegian. A number of Norwegian Duns have been stabled on the Broadmoor Lodge in Colorado Springs. They’re a high-quality little coach horse.


The Oldenburg horse of Germany has the excellence of being a heat blooded horse with many traits of the chilly bloods, similar to flat hoofs, heave heads and neck, and flat ribs. It’s not a hardy sort and is missing in endurance.


The Orlov is one other Russian horse, a trotter. The originator of this breed is extra fascinating than the breed itself. County Alexius Grigorievich Orlov (1737 1808) was involved together with his brother Gregory within the conspiracy of 1762 which led to the deposition and dying of Szar Peter and was mentioned to have been his precise assassin. He additionally commanded the Russian fleet which annihilated the Turks at Chesme in 1770. When he died, he left 30,000 serfs and an property value 5 million rubles the equal right this moment most likely of fifteen gazotskies. After these gory actions he turned to horse breeding and produced the Orlov by crossing the next blood: English Thoroughbred, Arabian, Dutch, Danish, and Mecklenburg. He began with an Arabian stallion and ultimately the Orlov breed developed. Earlier than the Revolution there have been about 3000 stud farms in Russia dedicated to breeding Orlov trotters. A superb Orlov may be very good-looking with a small head, very Arabian in look, broad chest, longish again, nicely rounded quarters, and powerful muscular legs. He goes as much as 17-hands in peak.


Whenever you named the palomino to start with, it’s not strictly a breed you talked about however a coloration. You may not know that the origin of their engaging coloring goes again to distant ages, having been talked about within the Homeric instances. It seems to be of Spanish origin from Saracen and Moorish inventory and three is little doubt that the sort incorporates Arab and Barb blood. Queen Isabella, the sponsor of Columbus, inspired their breeding. Columbus might have taken them to the West Indies however we all know that Cortez had them in Mexico in 1519. In Spain, these horses had been known as Ysabellas however it’s mentioned that they take their current title from Juan de Palomino to whom Cortez offered one.


We dont see draft work horses a lot any extra in America however one of many extra standard breeds it the Percheron, originating in a district of France known as Perche and, whereas a splendid draft horse, is a far cry from the gorgeous Persian breed. It’s mentioned that the Persians was often known as a breed lengthy centuries earlier than Christ. He’s regarded as the ancestor of the Arabian. He was a horse of nice magnificence, filled with high quality, excessive spirited, speedy, and brave.

The pinto just isn’t a breed within the strict sense of the phrase however is acknowledged as such in America right this moment. There are two distinct patterns. Have you learnt whether or not the paint subsequent door has overo markings or whether or not it’s a tobiano? Its simple nothing to it. Simply study the patterns.

Polish Arab

Volumes have been written concerning the Polish Arab and extra can be written as a result of the ability of the Poles as horse breeders and horse lovers is famous and they’re nonetheless onerous at work bettering their already excellent breeding inventory. A terrific Polish creator wrote, having prayed to God for assist, then a horse lover does his greatest in breeding his horses and trusts extra to his personal expertise than to books. A lot for books on breeding! Their horses have all the time been in nice demand due to their excellence. The oldest Arabian stud in Poland originated in 1506. The efforts of the Poles to guard their nice stud horses from confiscation or annihilation within the final conflict is a captivating story.

Along with the Polish Arab, Poland has the Polish Half-bred, a breed which has English Thoroughbred, Arab, or Anglo-Arab blood on at the least one facet of the pedigree. He was developed to reply the agricultural want for a robust light-weight animal of excellent blood and bone.

Poland additionally had the Polish Thoroughbred, that are horses of pure English Thoroughbred inventory bred and developed in Poland. These are primarily racing inventory.


Quarter Horse

The Quarter Horse is so quite a few and standard that he’ll simply get the once-over-lightly right here however it’s fascinating to notice in passing that from a genealogical standpoint the Quarter Horse begins from an English Thoroughbred, Janus, a 14-2 stallion that was standard in Virginia and North Carolina between 1756 and 1780. Janus, earlier than being delivered to the US, was a race horse in England and his distance was 4 miles, most likely testifying to his descent from his Arabian ancestors. Since all Thoroughbreds hint their ancestry to a few Arabian sires, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Byerley Turk, it’s apparent that some Quarter Horse homeowners could also be stunned to study that their favourite mount was as soon as simply the gleam within the eye of a discover Arabian stallion (many instances eliminated).


From the modern racy Polish Thoroughbred we flip to the heave draft horse, the Rhenish from the Rhein Province in Germany. He isnt fairly however hes very helpful and an easy keeper.


Weve talked about the Orlov trotting horse however Russia has a number of different breeds. They’ve the heavy-draft horse, Beetewk, the Viatka pony, the Strelets, and amongst others the Russian Saddle Horse, the latter a cross between the Orlov trotter and Arabs and English Thoroughbreds. The Russian Steppe horse is among the hardest horses identified. They’ve nice pace and stamina and are nice weight carriers. Historical past information the outstanding achievement of a Cossack named D. Pieszkow, who coated 6000 miles in six months on a Steppe horse over what should be known as a number of the worlds worst terrain.

The Scandinavian horses embrace the Fjord horse, the Gudbrandsdal, and the native ponies. Within the Baltic States are the small Esthonian or Smudish horse, the Zemaitukas. These are all cold-bloods and allow us to move on earlier than I’ve to spell them once more, although extra of the Zemaitukas later.

If youve ever puzzled what sort of a horse it took to bear up below all that weight of knights in armour, the Schleswig horse of Germany is your reply. Later it turned helpful as a heavy cart horse.


Everybody is aware of the Shetland because the smallest of all breeds of ponies however not everybody is aware of that it’s outstanding for being the strongest member of the equine household in relation to its dimension. Its origin is unknown however information of its existence within the Shetland Isles mendacity to the north of Scotland date again many centuries.

The Shire of England was one other knight-in-armour carrying horse. He’s presently a precious agricultural horse, monumental in dimension and power.

The Spanish Jennet is the results of crossing a local Spanish horse with Barbs or Arabs. It’s well-known for its magnificence, nice docility, and obedience. The Spanish Andalusian breed goes again to the Center Ages and carried Arabian and Barb blood.

On this day of jet journey, most likely many readers of this text may have been to Kashmir and Nepal and can be aware of the lengthy strings of pack-ponies traversing the Himalyans. There are two attribute breeds, the Spiti and the Bhutia. These breeds are fascinating as a result of inbreeding is practiced to maintain down the scale, the breeding normally from father or mother to progeny somewhat than from brother to sister.

The Standardbred is the official title of American trotting and pacing horses. His ancestry traces to the Darley Arabian.

Now we have talked about a number of Russian breeds however now we come to probably the most aristocratic of all of them, the Strelet and it’s, in fact, the Russian Arabian. This breed was constructed from native mares crossed with Anglo-Arab, Turkish, Persian, or pure Arab sires. It’s named for the stud which developed it. The breed might be described as a big Arabian with all the superb attributes of that breed and is unaffected regardless of being bred for better dimension. It’s a supreme driving horse and is significantly in demand to be used as a Russian cavalry horse.


The Suffolk horse or the Suffolk Punch, as he’s generally identified, has a really particular attribute. He’s all the time chestnut in coloration. One other curious function of the breed is that each specimen of the breed now in existence traces its descent in direct male line in an unbroken chain to a horse foaled in 1760.

Whereas had been talking of draft horses, Sweden has two you might not have heard about the North Swedish hrose and the Swedish Ardennes.



Did you ever hear of a Tarbenian horse? His description sounds good. He’s a lightweight boned horse standing about 15-hands, of excellent conformation, and having stunning motion. He’s darkish brown or chestnut. His qualities, endurance, pace, nice braveness, unexacting meals necessities and really nice intelligence make him a wonderful horse for sporting functions. The place does he dwell? On the foot of the Pyrenees. His origin might be discovered within the Iberian horse which originally of the nineteenth Century was improved by Arabian stallions imported by Napoleon Bonaparte. Throughout Napoleons rule an important many wonderful Arabian stallions cam to France.


Thoroughbreds are subsequent in alphabetical order and had been talked about to start with as a breed with which everyone seems to be acquainted. But I’m wondering how a lot you do know concerning the Thoroughbred. He’s undoubtedly the very best identified of all British breeds. However do you know that the English Thoroughbred is of international blood? Girl Wentworth writes in Horses of Britain: The English Thoroughbred, although international of blood, known as English due to the very long time it has been bred and developed in England, the Thoroughbred as a result of it originated from the Arabic Kehilan of which Thoroughbred is the literal translation and which is the generic time period for the Arabian breed, which means pure-bred all by.

Thoroughbreds hint their ancestry to a few Arabian sires and their names are well-known the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Byerly Turk. It has been recommended that these well-known horses had been put to English mares however there might be no query that the muse mares had been japanese mares and little doubt Arabian. That is the opinion of R. S. Summerhays, English creator of many books on the horse. One-half of all Thoroughbred horses racing in America right this moment are descendants of the Darley Arabian.


Australia and New Zealand have a pony that implies the Appaloosa in sort the Timor. It might be any coloration however one which continuously happens is a chocolate physique, cream spots, and cream mane and tail. They’re standard for inventory work as a result of they’ll carry heavy weights, are tireless and sure-footed.

Trakehnen or Trakehner

The Trakehnen or Trakehner takes its title from the stud in East Prussia the place the breed was based in 1732 by William I of Prussia, father of Frederick the Nice. The muse inventory was equipped partly from Royal Studs and partly by importation of high-class Arabians from Poland. This breed has been fostered with attribute German thoroughness. On the Trakehnen Stud, the service interval begins on the finish of November and foals are left with their dams till 4 months previous. As 3-year-olds they go to the coaching institution the place they continue to be for a yr. When 4 they’re admitted to vigorous trials which embrace searching with packs of hounds and cross nation races, over fences, banks, and open ditches. The very best are retained on the stud for breeding. The second greatest go to the State Stud and the third class offered to non-public breedrs. Those that didn’t move are castrated. The Trakehnen Stud was destroyed throughout World Struggle II however the breed is being preserved in what’s now Poland and in Germany the place it’s identified by the title of East Prussian.

The Byerley Turk was talked about earlier as one of many three basis sires of the Thoroughbred. He was imported into England from Turkey in 1689 though sure authorities declare that he was not a Turk however an Arab. The previous Turkoman horse was similar with the Mongolian horse of Higher Asia. The most common indigenous horses in Turkey are the Kurdistan ponies. It’s the customized to cross the native mares with Arabian stallions to provide the Kurdistan.

U – V


There appears to be just one horse whose title begins with the letter V the Viatka, thought to be a Russian breed. They’re descended from the Kleppers and are an exceptionally hardy breed. They develop an immensely heavy winter coat to guard them from the bitter chilly.

W – X

Wild Horse isnt simply the title youve given to some unruly beast. Wild Horse is a definite breed it’s the one prehistoric artists drew footage of on the partitions of caves and the identical horse exists right this moment on the highlands of Central Asia. They’re a small, pony-like creature with a big heavy head, Roman nosed, and with a tufted tail. Naturalists usually agree that it’s a distinct species often known as equus przevalskii. Lots of the norther European breeds hint their descent or have been influenced by the Wild Horse. There are a couple of of this species on view at a number of zoological gardens principally in Nice Britain.


Vogue influences horse breeding as proven by the event of the Yorkshire Coach horse. Elegant automobiles had been showing in modern London in about 1790 and so they created an infinite demand for a much bigger, lighter, and extra flashy horse. Consequently, they crossed the Thoroughbred and the Cleveland Bay, infused Arab and Barb blood, and got here up with the robust handsome Yorkshire Coach. He’s quick dying out now as a result of who has a coach nowadays in addition to the Queen of England and the Broadmoor Lodge?


We end the alphabet with three Zs the Zebra, the Zeeland horse, and the Zemaitukas. The Zebra a time period which means striped is the cousin of the horse. It’s not a breed of the horse household however the descriptive title given to the three distinct species of equus. The Zebra is a singularly uncooperative animal and we go away him to the zoo to deal with.

The Zeeland horse goes again to earliest instances. He’s a product of the Netherlands and was remarked upon by the Romans in the course of the invasion of the Low Lands by Julius Caesar. The Emperor Napoleon used them throughout his marketing campaign in Russia and so they had been used extensively in World Struggle I. They’re nonetheless very fashionable as an agricultural horse.

The final Z is the Zemaitukas of Lithuania. They’re a really historical horse of two essential ancestral strains. The Tartar pony of the Steppes and the Arabian. It is among the hardest horses to be discovered because of the regulation of survival of the fittest. They had been often known as a definite breed way back to the thirteenth Century; the horses getting used for cavalry mounts within the guerilla warfare that was so standard in that period. They had been famend for his or her endurance, virtually indestructible legs and toes, and their capability to dwell, because the saying goes, on the odor of the grain bag.

Weve now gone from A to Z. We started with an excellent horse, the Akhal-Teke and ended with an excellent horse, the Zemaitukas. Weve glimpsed excellent horses during the alphabet and in that temporary look weve had a startling conclusion emerge that we had higher take an excellent take a look at the Arabian horse. He has been the muse inventory or had contributed to the founding of at the least 50 breeds of horses. The Arabian appears to be the important ingredient of any recipe designed the enhance the equine soup.

This text was initially printed within the April 1963 subject of Western Horseman.

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